Dyes are used for coloring the material . Dyes are molecules which absorb and reflect light at specific wavelengths to offer human eyes the sense of color. There are two major sorts of dyes natural and artificial dyes. The natural dyes are extracted from natural substances like plants, animals, or minerals. Synthetic dyes are ‘made during a laboratory. Chemicals are synthesized for creating synthetic dyes. a number of the synthetic dyes contain metals too.
Dyes and Sources of Dye:
The dyes which are used for oolouring fabrics are often classified consistent with their sources.
These dyes aren’t received hum nstuml sources. they’re synthetically made by using various chemisls. Chemicals dyes are cheap and straightforward to use , with overall good colour fatness but cause environmental pollution.
Basic (Cationic) Dyes:Basic dyes are water-soluble and are mainly wont to dye acrylic fibers. they’re mostly used with a mordant. A mordant may be a agent which is employed to line dyes on fabrics by forming an insoluble compound with the dye. aside from acrylic, basic dyes aren’t very suitable for the other fiber as they’re not fast to light, washing or perspiration. Thus, they’re generally used for giving an after treatment to the fabrics that have already been dyed with acid dyes.
Direct (substantive) Dyes
Direct (substantive) Dyes :Direct dyes color cellulose fibers directly without the utilization of mordants. they’re used for dyeing wool, silk, nylon, cotton, rayon etc. These dyes aren’t very bright and have poor fastness to washing although they’re fairly fast to light.
Mordsnt Dyes The mordant or chrome dyes are acidic in character. Sodium or potassium bichromate is employed with them within the dyebath or after the method of dyeing is completed. this is often finished getting the binding action of the chrome. they’re mostly used for wool which gets an honest color fastness after treatment with mordantdyes. they’re also used for cotton, linen, silk, rayon and nylon but are less effective for them.
Vat Dyes: Vat dyes are insoluble in water and can’t dye fibers directly. However, they will be made soluble by reduction in alkaline solution which allows them to affix to the textile fibers. Indigo is that the original vat color . These dyes are the fastest dyes for cotton, linen and rayon. they’re used with mordants to dye other fabrics like wool, nylon, polyesters, acrylics and modacrylics.
Reactive Dyes: Reactive dyes react with fiber molecules to make a compound . These dyes, they’re either applied from alkaline solution or from neutral solutions which are then alkalized during a separate process. Sometimes heat treatment is additionally used for developing different shades. Alter dyeing, the material is washed well with soap so on remove any unfixed dye. Reactive dyes were originally used for cellulose libers only but now their various types are used for wool, silk, nylon, acrylics and their blends also .
Disperse Dyes:Disperse dyes are water insoluble. These particles dissolve within the fibers and impart color to them. These dyes were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose ester but now they’re wont to dye nylon,cellulose triaoetate, and acrylic too.
Sulfur Dyes:Sulfur Dyes are insoluble and made soluble by the assistance of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. Dyeing is completed at heat with large quantities of salt in order that the colour penetrates into the fiber. After dyeing the material is oxidized for getting desired shades by exposure to air or by using chemicals. Excess dyes and chemicals are removed by thorough washing. These dyes are fast to light, washing and perspiration and ane mostly used for cotton and linen.
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